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How Copper Is Made
Jul 13, 2018

Copper is located in the fourth periodic IB family of the periodic table. It is the first metal used by mankind. Copper has excellent properties and has been widely used in the industrial field. Copper content in the earth's crust is about 0.01%. In nature, copper is mostly in the form of compounds. The common copper ores are chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), chalcopyrite (Cu2S), malachite (Cu2 (OH) 2CO3), chalcopyrite (Cu2O), and chalcopyrite (CuSO4 5H2O).


In the Western Han Dynasty, the record of "Zeng Qing Zeng iron is copper" in Liu An's "Huainan Wan Bi Shu" was written in the meaning of putting iron sheet into copper sulfate solution or other copper salt solution to replace single copper. This method is the pioneer of modern hydrometallurgy. The process of production of copper in wet process is also called bile copper method. The production process mainly includes two steps, one is leaching copper, and iron is placed in the solution of the vitriol. The copper ions in the vitriol are deposited by iron to be deposited into a single copper. The two is to collect the replacement copper powder and then melt it. The essential principle of wet copper metallurgy is to replace the weak metal (except K, Ca, Na), which is stronger than copper. For example, the metal zinc or iron is added to the copper sulfate solution, and the metal copper can be replaced. The main reaction is CuSO4+Zn=Cu+ZnSO4; CuSO4+Fe=Cu+FeSO4.


The first man of the world wet metallurgy copper, Zhang Qian, has written a Book of the "copper dip" in combination with his predecessors' works and personal experience. The book describes the use of copper containing copper ore (or gallbladder water), which has the advantages of "less cost and less effort".


In chemical laboratories, we can also simulate wet metallurgy. 20cm long wire is taken with the sand paper to polish the light, and then 4ml copper sulfate is taken in the test tube, and the bright iron wire is added to the test tube. It can be statically placed. It can be observed that the surface of the wire has purple red metal precipitation, and the solution gradually changed from blue to light green. The purple red metal is copper, and finally the wire is collected to collect the copper precipitated on the surface of the wire.


In addition, in ancient China, there was also a method of smelting copper -- "copper smelting by fire." According to the textual research, the copper smelting in Shang Dynasty mainly used malachite and charcoal. The process of making copper with copper element oxide and reductant at high temperature is the process of making copper. The reaction requires a certain temperature, so the copper monomer can be produced in the condition of heating, so it is called "fire method copper".


It has been discovered long ago that Malachite can produce a bright red metal after burning. This metal is copper. The main component of malachite is alkaline copper carbonate [Cu2 (OH) 2CO3]. The alkaline copper carbonate heat will decompose to produce copper, water and carbon dioxide. Carbon or carbon monoxide is reductive and can reduce copper oxide. The reaction is: Cu2 (OH) 2CO3 2CuO+H2O+CO2, C+2CuO 2Cu+CO2, CO+CuO Cu+CO2.


In chemical laboratories, we can use the device shown below to simulate the smelting process. The new copper oxide made of 10G is grinded into powder and poured into crucible to dry. The new charcoal made of 1.5g is also ground into powder and poured into crucible to dry. Then, the copper oxide powder and the charcoal powder are mixed evenly. The instrument is laid on the bottom of the test tube with a spoon or paper slot. The instrument is assembled according to the following figure. One end of the glass tube is put into a test tube with clarified lime water, and the alcohol lamp with a wind proof cover is heated. When the clarified lime water becomes cloudy, the purple or red solids appear gradually in the test tube and stop heating. After the reaction is completed, it is first withdrawn into the glass tube containing the clarified lime water test tube, and then the alcohol lamp is withdrawn. Finally, pour the powder from the test tube onto a clean white paper and observe the powder. Then you will find that the paper has purple red solid, which is copper.


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    Taizhou Hongchuang Automation Equipment Co.,Ltd

    Address:Port City Of Shamen Town, Yuhuan County, Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province, China

    Contact:Amy Hou

    Mobile:+8618906570891 

    E-mail:amy@brass-valve-machine.com

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